IPTables Linux firewall with packet string-matching support

by Anton Chuvakin Sept. 1, 2017 via Symantec

Linux firewalling code has come a long way since the time ipfwadm was introduced in kernel version 1.2.1 in 1995. Ipfwadm enabled standard TCP/IP packet filtering features such as filtering by source/target addresses and port numbers. Then, in early 1999, when the first stable 2.2.0 kernel was released, firewalling code was replaced with new ipchains-controlled code. New features included support for chains of rules, fragmentation handling, better network address translation (NAT) support and several usability improvements. Readers should be reminded that Linux firewalling includes kernel-level code (usually in form of loadable module or kernel source patch) and user-level code (a control utility such as /usr/bin/ipchains, that is used to insert packet rules into kernel-space). Thus whenever new Linux firewalling code was introduced it involved both kernel and userspace code rewrite.

https://www.symantec.com/connect/articles/iptables-linux-firewall-packet-string-matching-support